LANGUAGES IN COMPUTERS IN LOGICAL MANNER


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CODES OF LANGUAGE IN COMPUTER SYSTEM
WHAT ARE BINARY CODE?

In real life if we want to solve our query or problem,  we use mathematical operations ,logic and  with the help of pen and pencil   we solve it.  The same is done by the computer but it does not use pencil to solve that problem it uses programs to solve it,  means it uses  the instruction given by the programmer to solve it.

 But to solve any problem there must be mean to convey the computer it is a problem not  just a useless writing.  So computer scientist have developed language software which allows the programmer to code to solve the problem.

 A computer language software is like a simple like English or any other language grammar software which checks whether the written code is right or not , and then it gives the computer an instruction to do the thing that are written in that language software.

  Now I will give you some basic grammar rules called codes which make the computer understand that something written in the language means something according to codes. Let us first understand binary codes.

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BINARY CODES:-
 
Electronic digital systems use signals that have two distinct values and circuit elements that have two stable states.  There is a direct analogy among binary signals, binary circuit elements, and binary digits.  

A binary number of n digits, for example may be represented by n binary circuit elements, each having an output signal equivalent to a 0 or a 1.  Digitals system represent and manipulate not only binary numbers, but also many discrete elements of information.

  Any discrete element of information distinct among group of quantities can be represented by binary code.  For example red is one color of the spectrum.  The letter A  is one distinct element of alphabet. 

A bit which is a binary digit, when used in conjunction with binary­­­­­­­­­­­­­ codes represents or denotes a quantity which is equal to 1 or 0.  To represent a group of 2n distinct elements in a binary code requires a minimum of n bits.  This is because it is possible to represent n bits to 2N distinct ways.  

For example, group of four distinct quantities represent two bit code with each quantity assigned one of the following bit combinations: 00, 01, 10, 11.  A group of  8 element require 3 bit digital system or 3 bit code with each element assigned to one and only one element such as 000, 001, 010,  011,  100, 101, 110, 111. 

The example shows that the distinct bit combination of an n bit code can be found by counting in binary from  (0 to 2n -1) .  Some bits combinations are unassigned when he number of elements of the group to be coded is not a multiple of the power of 2.

 The ten decimal digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 are example of such a group.  A binary codes that  distinguish among ten elements must contain at least four bits, as 3bits is used to represent maximum eight elements.

 Four bits can form 16 distinct combinations but only ten digits are coded , the remaining six combination are unassigned and not used.  Although the minimum number of bits required to code 2n  distinct quantities is n, there is no maximum number of bits that may be used for a binary code.

 For example the ten decimal  digit can be coded with ten bits, and each decimal digits assign a bit combinations of nine 0’s and a 1.  In this particularly binary code , the digit 6 is assigned the bit combination 00010000000.




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